Documentation / usb / gadget-testing.rst


Based on kernel version 5.14. Page generated on 2021-08-31 10:40 EST.

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==============
Gadget Testing
==============

This file summarizes information on basic testing of USB functions
provided by gadgets.

.. contents

   1. ACM function
   2. ECM function
   3. ECM subset function
   4. EEM function
   5. FFS function
   6. HID function
   7. LOOPBACK function
   8. MASS STORAGE function
   9. MIDI function
   10. NCM function
   11. OBEX function
   12. PHONET function
   13. RNDIS function
   14. SERIAL function
   15. SOURCESINK function
   16. UAC1 function (legacy implementation)
   17. UAC2 function
   18. UVC function
   19. PRINTER function
   20. UAC1 function (new API)


1. ACM function
===============

The function is provided by usb_f_acm.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "acm".
The ACM function provides just one attribute in its function directory:

	port_num

The attribute is read-only.

There can be at most 4 ACM/generic serial/OBEX ports in the system.


Testing the ACM function
------------------------

On the host::

	cat > /dev/ttyACM<X>

On the device::

	cat /dev/ttyGS<Y>

then the other way round

On the device::

	cat > /dev/ttyGS<Y>

On the host::

	cat /dev/ttyACM<X>

2. ECM function
===============

The function is provided by usb_f_ecm.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "ecm".
The ECM function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ==================================================
	ifname		network device interface name associated with this
			function instance
	qmult		queue length multiplier for high and super speed
	host_addr	MAC address of host's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	dev_addr	MAC address of device's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	=============== ==================================================

and after creating the functions/ecm.<instance name> they contain default
values: qmult is 5, dev_addr and host_addr are randomly selected.
The ifname can be written to if the function is not bound. A write must be an
interface pattern such as "usb%d", which will cause the net core to choose the
next free usbX interface. By default, it is set to "usb%d".

Testing the ECM function
------------------------

Configure IP addresses of the device and the host. Then:

On the device::

	ping <host's IP>

On the host::

	ping <device's IP>

3. ECM subset function
======================

The function is provided by usb_f_ecm_subset.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "geth".
The ECM subset function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ==================================================
	ifname		network device interface name associated with this
			function instance
	qmult		queue length multiplier for high and super speed
	host_addr	MAC address of host's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	dev_addr	MAC address of device's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	=============== ==================================================

and after creating the functions/ecm.<instance name> they contain default
values: qmult is 5, dev_addr and host_addr are randomly selected.
The ifname can be written to if the function is not bound. A write must be an
interface pattern such as "usb%d", which will cause the net core to choose the
next free usbX interface. By default, it is set to "usb%d".

Testing the ECM subset function
-------------------------------

Configure IP addresses of the device and the host. Then:

On the device::

	ping <host's IP>

On the host::

	ping <device's IP>

4. EEM function
===============

The function is provided by usb_f_eem.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "eem".
The EEM function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ==================================================
	ifname		network device interface name associated with this
			function instance
	qmult		queue length multiplier for high and super speed
	host_addr	MAC address of host's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	dev_addr	MAC address of device's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	=============== ==================================================

and after creating the functions/eem.<instance name> they contain default
values: qmult is 5, dev_addr and host_addr are randomly selected.
The ifname can be written to if the function is not bound. A write must be an
interface pattern such as "usb%d", which will cause the net core to choose the
next free usbX interface. By default, it is set to "usb%d".

Testing the EEM function
------------------------

Configure IP addresses of the device and the host. Then:

On the device::

	ping <host's IP>

On the host::

	ping <device's IP>

5. FFS function
===============

The function is provided by usb_f_fs.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "ffs".
The function directory is intentionally empty and not modifiable.

After creating the directory there is a new instance (a "device") of FunctionFS
available in the system. Once a "device" is available, the user should follow
the standard procedure for using FunctionFS (mount it, run the userspace
process which implements the function proper). The gadget should be enabled
by writing a suitable string to usb_gadget/<gadget>/UDC.

Testing the FFS function
------------------------

On the device: start the function's userspace daemon, enable the gadget

On the host: use the USB function provided by the device

6. HID function
===============

The function is provided by usb_f_hid.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "hid".
The HID function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ===========================================
	protocol	HID protocol to use
	report_desc	data to be used in HID reports, except data
			passed with /dev/hidg<X>
	report_length	HID report length
	subclass	HID subclass to use
	=============== ===========================================

For a keyboard the protocol and the subclass are 1, the report_length is 8,
while the report_desc is::

  $ hd my_report_desc
  00000000  05 01 09 06 a1 01 05 07  19 e0 29 e7 15 00 25 01  |..........)...%.|
  00000010  75 01 95 08 81 02 95 01  75 08 81 03 95 05 75 01  |u.......u.....u.|
  00000020  05 08 19 01 29 05 91 02  95 01 75 03 91 03 95 06  |....).....u.....|
  00000030  75 08 15 00 25 65 05 07  19 00 29 65 81 00 c0     |u...%e....)e...|
  0000003f

Such a sequence of bytes can be stored to the attribute with echo::

  $ echo -ne \\x05\\x01\\x09\\x06\\xa1.....

Testing the HID function
------------------------

Device:

- create the gadget
- connect the gadget to a host, preferably not the one used
  to control the gadget
- run a program which writes to /dev/hidg<N>, e.g.
  a userspace program found in Documentation/usb/gadget_hid.rst::

	$ ./hid_gadget_test /dev/hidg0 keyboard

Host:

- observe the keystrokes from the gadget

7. LOOPBACK function
====================

The function is provided by usb_f_ss_lb.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "Loopback".
The LOOPBACK function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== =======================
	qlen		depth of loopback queue
	bulk_buflen	buffer length
	=============== =======================

Testing the LOOPBACK function
-----------------------------

device: run the gadget

host: test-usb (tools/usb/testusb.c)

8. MASS STORAGE function
========================

The function is provided by usb_f_mass_storage.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "mass_storage".
The MASS STORAGE function provides these attributes in its directory:
files:

	=============== ==============================================
	stall		Set to permit function to halt bulk endpoints.
			Disabled on some USB devices known not to work
			correctly. You should set it to true.
	num_buffers	Number of pipeline buffers. Valid numbers
			are 2..4. Available only if
			CONFIG_USB_GADGET_DEBUG_FILES is set.
	=============== ==============================================

and a default lun.0 directory corresponding to SCSI LUN #0.

A new lun can be added with mkdir::

	$ mkdir functions/mass_storage.0/partition.5

Lun numbering does not have to be continuous, except for lun #0 which is
created by default. A maximum of 8 luns can be specified and they all must be
named following the <name>.<number> scheme. The numbers can be 0..8.
Probably a good convention is to name the luns "lun.<number>",
although it is not mandatory.

In each lun directory there are the following attribute files:

	=============== ==============================================
	file		The path to the backing file for the LUN.
			Required if LUN is not marked as removable.
	ro		Flag specifying access to the LUN shall be
			read-only. This is implied if CD-ROM emulation
			is enabled as well as when it was impossible
			to open "filename" in R/W mode.
	removable	Flag specifying that LUN shall be indicated as
			being removable.
	cdrom		Flag specifying that LUN shall be reported as
			being a CD-ROM.
	nofua		Flag specifying that FUA flag
			in SCSI WRITE(10,12)
	=============== ==============================================

Testing the MASS STORAGE function
---------------------------------

device: connect the gadget, enable it
host: dmesg, see the USB drives appear (if system configured to automatically
mount)

9. MIDI function
================

The function is provided by usb_f_midi.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "midi".
The MIDI function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ====================================
	buflen		MIDI buffer length
	id		ID string for the USB MIDI adapter
	in_ports	number of MIDI input ports
	index		index value for the USB MIDI adapter
	out_ports	number of MIDI output ports
	qlen		USB read request queue length
	=============== ====================================

Testing the MIDI function
-------------------------

There are two cases: playing a mid from the gadget to
the host and playing a mid from the host to the gadget.

1) Playing a mid from the gadget to the host:

host::

  $ arecordmidi -l
   Port    Client name                      Port name
   14:0    Midi Through                     Midi Through Port-0
   24:0    MIDI Gadget                      MIDI Gadget MIDI 1
  $ arecordmidi -p 24:0 from_gadget.mid

gadget::

  $ aplaymidi -l
   Port    Client name                      Port name
   20:0    f_midi                           f_midi

  $ aplaymidi -p 20:0 to_host.mid

2) Playing a mid from the host to the gadget

gadget::

  $ arecordmidi -l
   Port    Client name                      Port name
   20:0    f_midi                           f_midi

  $ arecordmidi -p 20:0 from_host.mid

host::

  $ aplaymidi -l
   Port    Client name                      Port name
   14:0    Midi Through                     Midi Through Port-0
   24:0    MIDI Gadget                      MIDI Gadget MIDI 1

  $ aplaymidi -p24:0 to_gadget.mid

The from_gadget.mid should sound identical to the to_host.mid.

The from_host.id should sound identical to the to_gadget.mid.

MIDI files can be played to speakers/headphones with e.g. timidity installed::

  $ aplaymidi -l
   Port    Client name                      Port name
   14:0    Midi Through                     Midi Through Port-0
   24:0    MIDI Gadget                      MIDI Gadget MIDI 1
  128:0    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 0
  128:1    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 1
  128:2    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 2
  128:3    TiMidity                         TiMidity port 3

  $ aplaymidi -p 128:0 file.mid

MIDI ports can be logically connected using the aconnect utility, e.g.::

  $ aconnect 24:0 128:0 # try it on the host

After the gadget's MIDI port is connected to timidity's MIDI port,
whatever is played at the gadget side with aplaymidi -l is audible
in host's speakers/headphones.

10. NCM function
================

The function is provided by usb_f_ncm.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "ncm".
The NCM function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ==================================================
	ifname		network device interface name associated with this
			function instance
	qmult		queue length multiplier for high and super speed
	host_addr	MAC address of host's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	dev_addr	MAC address of device's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	=============== ==================================================

and after creating the functions/ncm.<instance name> they contain default
values: qmult is 5, dev_addr and host_addr are randomly selected.
The ifname can be written to if the function is not bound. A write must be an
interface pattern such as "usb%d", which will cause the net core to choose the
next free usbX interface. By default, it is set to "usb%d".

Testing the NCM function
------------------------

Configure IP addresses of the device and the host. Then:

On the device::

	ping <host's IP>

On the host::

	ping <device's IP>

11. OBEX function
=================

The function is provided by usb_f_obex.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "obex".
The OBEX function provides just one attribute in its function directory:

	port_num

The attribute is read-only.

There can be at most 4 ACM/generic serial/OBEX ports in the system.

Testing the OBEX function
-------------------------

On device::

	seriald -f /dev/ttyGS<Y> -s 1024

On host::

	serialc -v <vendorID> -p <productID> -i<interface#> -a1 -s1024 \
                -t<out endpoint addr> -r<in endpoint addr>

where seriald and serialc are Felipe's utilities found here:

	https://github.com/felipebalbi/usb-tools.git master

12. PHONET function
===================

The function is provided by usb_f_phonet.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "phonet".
The PHONET function provides just one attribute in its function directory:

	=============== ==================================================
	ifname		network device interface name associated with this
			function instance
	=============== ==================================================

Testing the PHONET function
---------------------------

It is not possible to test the SOCK_STREAM protocol without a specific piece
of hardware, so only SOCK_DGRAM has been tested. For the latter to work,
in the past I had to apply the patch mentioned here:

http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-usb/msg85689.html

These tools are required:

git://git.gitorious.org/meego-cellular/phonet-utils.git

On the host::

	$ ./phonet -a 0x10 -i usbpn0
	$ ./pnroute add 0x6c usbpn0
	$./pnroute add 0x10 usbpn0
	$ ifconfig usbpn0 up

On the device::

	$ ./phonet -a 0x6c -i upnlink0
	$ ./pnroute add 0x10 upnlink0
	$ ifconfig upnlink0 up

Then a test program can be used::

	http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-usb/msg85690.html

On the device::

	$ ./pnxmit -a 0x6c -r

On the host::

	$ ./pnxmit -a 0x10 -s 0x6c

As a result some data should be sent from host to device.
Then the other way round:

On the host::

	$ ./pnxmit -a 0x10 -r

On the device::

	$ ./pnxmit -a 0x6c -s 0x10

13. RNDIS function
==================

The function is provided by usb_f_rndis.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "rndis".
The RNDIS function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ==================================================
	ifname		network device interface name associated with this
			function instance
	qmult		queue length multiplier for high and super speed
	host_addr	MAC address of host's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	dev_addr	MAC address of device's end of this
			Ethernet over USB link
	=============== ==================================================

and after creating the functions/rndis.<instance name> they contain default
values: qmult is 5, dev_addr and host_addr are randomly selected.
The ifname can be written to if the function is not bound. A write must be an
interface pattern such as "usb%d", which will cause the net core to choose the
next free usbX interface. By default, it is set to "usb%d".

Testing the RNDIS function
--------------------------

Configure IP addresses of the device and the host. Then:

On the device::

	ping <host's IP>

On the host::

	ping <device's IP>

14. SERIAL function
===================

The function is provided by usb_f_gser.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "gser".
The SERIAL function provides just one attribute in its function directory:

	port_num

The attribute is read-only.

There can be at most 4 ACM/generic serial/OBEX ports in the system.

Testing the SERIAL function
---------------------------

On host::

	insmod usbserial
	echo VID PID >/sys/bus/usb-serial/drivers/generic/new_id

On host::

	cat > /dev/ttyUSB<X>

On target::

	cat /dev/ttyGS<Y>

then the other way round

On target::

	cat > /dev/ttyGS<Y>

On host::

	cat /dev/ttyUSB<X>

15. SOURCESINK function
=======================

The function is provided by usb_f_ss_lb.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "SourceSink".
The SOURCESINK function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ==================================
	pattern		0 (all zeros), 1 (mod63), 2 (none)
	isoc_interval	1..16
	isoc_maxpacket	0 - 1023 (fs), 0 - 1024 (hs/ss)
	isoc_mult	0..2 (hs/ss only)
	isoc_maxburst	0..15 (ss only)
	bulk_buflen	buffer length
	bulk_qlen	depth of queue for bulk
	iso_qlen	depth of queue for iso
	=============== ==================================

Testing the SOURCESINK function
-------------------------------

device: run the gadget

host: test-usb (tools/usb/testusb.c)


16. UAC1 function (legacy implementation)
=========================================

The function is provided by usb_f_uac1_legacy.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory
is "uac1_legacy".
The uac1 function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ====================================
	audio_buf_size	audio buffer size
	fn_cap		capture pcm device file name
	fn_cntl		control device file name
	fn_play		playback pcm device file name
	req_buf_size	ISO OUT endpoint request buffer size
	req_count	ISO OUT endpoint request count
	=============== ====================================

The attributes have sane default values.

Testing the UAC1 function
-------------------------

device: run the gadget

host::

	aplay -l # should list our USB Audio Gadget

17. UAC2 function
=================

The function is provided by usb_f_uac2.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "uac2".
The uac2 function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=============== ====================================================
	c_chmask	capture channel mask
	c_srate		capture sampling rate
	c_ssize		capture sample size (bytes)
	c_sync		capture synchronization type (async/adaptive)
	fb_max          maximum extra bandwidth in async mode
	p_chmask	playback channel mask
	p_srate		playback sampling rate
	p_ssize		playback sample size (bytes)
	req_number	the number of pre-allocated request for both capture
			and playback
	=============== ====================================================

The attributes have sane default values.

Testing the UAC2 function
-------------------------

device: run the gadget
host: aplay -l # should list our USB Audio Gadget

This function does not require real hardware support, it just
sends a stream of audio data to/from the host. In order to
actually hear something at the device side, a command similar
to this must be used at the device side::

	$ arecord -f dat -t wav -D hw:2,0 | aplay -D hw:0,0 &

e.g.::

	$ arecord -f dat -t wav -D hw:CARD=UAC2Gadget,DEV=0 | \
	  aplay -D default:CARD=OdroidU3

18. UVC function
================

The function is provided by usb_f_uvc.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "uvc".
The uvc function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	=================== ================================================
	streaming_interval  interval for polling endpoint for data transfers
	streaming_maxburst  bMaxBurst for super speed companion descriptor
	streaming_maxpacket maximum packet size this endpoint is capable of
			    sending or receiving when this configuration is
			    selected
	=================== ================================================

There are also "control" and "streaming" subdirectories, each of which contain
a number of their subdirectories. There are some sane defaults provided, but
the user must provide the following:

	================== ====================================================
	control header     create in control/header, link from control/class/fs
			   and/or control/class/ss
	streaming header   create in streaming/header, link from
			   streaming/class/fs and/or streaming/class/hs and/or
			   streaming/class/ss
	format description create in streaming/mjpeg and/or
			   streaming/uncompressed
	frame description  create in streaming/mjpeg/<format> and/or in
			   streaming/uncompressed/<format>
	================== ====================================================

Each frame description contains frame interval specification, and each
such specification consists of a number of lines with an inverval value
in each line. The rules stated above are best illustrated with an example::

  # mkdir functions/uvc.usb0/control/header/h
  # cd functions/uvc.usb0/control/
  # ln -s header/h class/fs
  # ln -s header/h class/ss
  # mkdir -p functions/uvc.usb0/streaming/uncompressed/u/360p
  # cat <<EOF > functions/uvc.usb0/streaming/uncompressed/u/360p/dwFrameInterval
  666666
  1000000
  5000000
  EOF
  # cd $GADGET_CONFIGFS_ROOT
  # mkdir functions/uvc.usb0/streaming/header/h
  # cd functions/uvc.usb0/streaming/header/h
  # ln -s ../../uncompressed/u
  # cd ../../class/fs
  # ln -s ../../header/h
  # cd ../../class/hs
  # ln -s ../../header/h
  # cd ../../class/ss
  # ln -s ../../header/h


Testing the UVC function
------------------------

device: run the gadget, modprobe vivid::

  # uvc-gadget -u /dev/video<uvc video node #> -v /dev/video<vivid video node #>

where uvc-gadget is this program:
	http://git.ideasonboard.org/uvc-gadget.git

with these patches:

	http://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-usb/msg99220.html

host::

	luvcview -f yuv

19. PRINTER function
====================

The function is provided by usb_f_printer.ko module.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "printer".
The printer function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	==========	===========================================
	pnp_string	Data to be passed to the host in pnp string
	q_len		Number of requests per endpoint
	==========	===========================================

Testing the PRINTER function
----------------------------

The most basic testing:

device: run the gadget::

	# ls -l /devices/virtual/usb_printer_gadget/

should show g_printer<number>.

If udev is active, then /dev/g_printer<number> should appear automatically.

host:

If udev is active, then e.g. /dev/usb/lp0 should appear.

host->device transmission:

device::

	# cat /dev/g_printer<number>

host::

	# cat > /dev/usb/lp0

device->host transmission::

	# cat > /dev/g_printer<number>

host::

	# cat /dev/usb/lp0

More advanced testing can be done with the prn_example
described in Documentation/usb/gadget_printer.rst.


20. UAC1 function (virtual ALSA card, using u_audio API)
========================================================

The function is provided by usb_f_uac1.ko module.
It will create a virtual ALSA card and the audio streams are simply
sinked to and sourced from it.

Function-specific configfs interface
------------------------------------

The function name to use when creating the function directory is "uac1".
The uac1 function provides these attributes in its function directory:

	========== ====================================================
	c_chmask   capture channel mask
	c_srate    capture sampling rate
	c_ssize    capture sample size (bytes)
	p_chmask   playback channel mask
	p_srate    playback sampling rate
	p_ssize    playback sample size (bytes)
	req_number the number of pre-allocated request for both capture
		   and playback
	========== ====================================================

The attributes have sane default values.

Testing the UAC1 function
-------------------------

device: run the gadget
host: aplay -l # should list our USB Audio Gadget

This function does not require real hardware support, it just
sends a stream of audio data to/from the host. In order to
actually hear something at the device side, a command similar
to this must be used at the device side::

	$ arecord -f dat -t wav -D hw:2,0 | aplay -D hw:0,0 &

e.g.::

	$ arecord -f dat -t wav -D hw:CARD=UAC1Gadget,DEV=0 | \
	  aplay -D default:CARD=OdroidU3