Documentation / fault-injection / fault-injection.rst


Based on kernel version 5.11. Page generated on 2021-02-15 21:59 EST.

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===========================================
Fault injection capabilities infrastructure
===========================================

See also drivers/md/md-faulty.c and "every_nth" module option for scsi_debug.


Available fault injection capabilities
--------------------------------------

- failslab

  injects slab allocation failures. (kmalloc(), kmem_cache_alloc(), ...)

- fail_page_alloc

  injects page allocation failures. (alloc_pages(), get_free_pages(), ...)

- fail_usercopy

  injects failures in user memory access functions. (copy_from_user(), get_user(), ...)

- fail_futex

  injects futex deadlock and uaddr fault errors.

- fail_make_request

  injects disk IO errors on devices permitted by setting
  /sys/block/<device>/make-it-fail or
  /sys/block/<device>/<partition>/make-it-fail. (submit_bio_noacct())

- fail_mmc_request

  injects MMC data errors on devices permitted by setting
  debugfs entries under /sys/kernel/debug/mmc0/fail_mmc_request

- fail_function

  injects error return on specific functions, which are marked by
  ALLOW_ERROR_INJECTION() macro, by setting debugfs entries
  under /sys/kernel/debug/fail_function. No boot option supported.

- NVMe fault injection

  inject NVMe status code and retry flag on devices permitted by setting
  debugfs entries under /sys/kernel/debug/nvme*/fault_inject. The default
  status code is NVME_SC_INVALID_OPCODE with no retry. The status code and
  retry flag can be set via the debugfs.


Configure fault-injection capabilities behavior
-----------------------------------------------

debugfs entries
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

fault-inject-debugfs kernel module provides some debugfs entries for runtime
configuration of fault-injection capabilities.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/probability:

	likelihood of failure injection, in percent.

	Format: <percent>

	Note that one-failure-per-hundred is a very high error rate
	for some testcases.  Consider setting probability=100 and configure
	/sys/kernel/debug/fail*/interval for such testcases.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/interval:

	specifies the interval between failures, for calls to
	should_fail() that pass all the other tests.

	Note that if you enable this, by setting interval>1, you will
	probably want to set probability=100.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/times:

	specifies how many times failures may happen at most.
	A value of -1 means "no limit".

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/space:

	specifies an initial resource "budget", decremented by "size"
	on each call to should_fail(,size).  Failure injection is
	suppressed until "space" reaches zero.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/verbose

	Format: { 0 | 1 | 2 }

	specifies the verbosity of the messages when failure is
	injected.  '0' means no messages; '1' will print only a single
	log line per failure; '2' will print a call trace too -- useful
	to debug the problems revealed by fault injection.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/task-filter:

	Format: { 'Y' | 'N' }

	A value of 'N' disables filtering by process (default).
	Any positive value limits failures to only processes indicated by
	/proc/<pid>/make-it-fail==1.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/require-start,
  /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/require-end,
  /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/reject-start,
  /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/reject-end:

	specifies the range of virtual addresses tested during
	stacktrace walking.  Failure is injected only if some caller
	in the walked stacktrace lies within the required range, and
	none lies within the rejected range.
	Default required range is [0,ULONG_MAX) (whole of virtual address space).
	Default rejected range is [0,0).

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail*/stacktrace-depth:

	specifies the maximum stacktrace depth walked during search
	for a caller within [require-start,require-end) OR
	[reject-start,reject-end).

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail_page_alloc/ignore-gfp-highmem:

	Format: { 'Y' | 'N' }

	default is 'N', setting it to 'Y' won't inject failures into
	highmem/user allocations.

- /sys/kernel/debug/failslab/ignore-gfp-wait:
- /sys/kernel/debug/fail_page_alloc/ignore-gfp-wait:

	Format: { 'Y' | 'N' }

	default is 'N', setting it to 'Y' will inject failures
	only into non-sleep allocations (GFP_ATOMIC allocations).

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail_page_alloc/min-order:

	specifies the minimum page allocation order to be injected
	failures.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail_futex/ignore-private:

	Format: { 'Y' | 'N' }

	default is 'N', setting it to 'Y' will disable failure injections
	when dealing with private (address space) futexes.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail_function/inject:

	Format: { 'function-name' | '!function-name' | '' }

	specifies the target function of error injection by name.
	If the function name leads '!' prefix, given function is
	removed from injection list. If nothing specified ('')
	injection list is cleared.

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail_function/injectable:

	(read only) shows error injectable functions and what type of
	error values can be specified. The error type will be one of
	below;
	- NULL:	retval must be 0.
	- ERRNO: retval must be -1 to -MAX_ERRNO (-4096).
	- ERR_NULL: retval must be 0 or -1 to -MAX_ERRNO (-4096).

- /sys/kernel/debug/fail_function/<functiuon-name>/retval:

	specifies the "error" return value to inject to the given
	function for given function. This will be created when
	user specifies new injection entry.

Boot option
^^^^^^^^^^^

In order to inject faults while debugfs is not available (early boot time),
use the boot option::

	failslab=
	fail_page_alloc=
	fail_usercopy=
	fail_make_request=
	fail_futex=
	mmc_core.fail_request=<interval>,<probability>,<space>,<times>

proc entries
^^^^^^^^^^^^

- /proc/<pid>/fail-nth,
  /proc/self/task/<tid>/fail-nth:

	Write to this file of integer N makes N-th call in the task fail.
	Read from this file returns a integer value. A value of '0' indicates
	that the fault setup with a previous write to this file was injected.
	A positive integer N indicates that the fault wasn't yet injected.
	Note that this file enables all types of faults (slab, futex, etc).
	This setting takes precedence over all other generic debugfs settings
	like probability, interval, times, etc. But per-capability settings
	(e.g. fail_futex/ignore-private) take precedence over it.

	This feature is intended for systematic testing of faults in a single
	system call. See an example below.

How to add new fault injection capability
-----------------------------------------

- #include <linux/fault-inject.h>

- define the fault attributes

  DECLARE_FAULT_ATTR(name);

  Please see the definition of struct fault_attr in fault-inject.h
  for details.

- provide a way to configure fault attributes

- boot option

  If you need to enable the fault injection capability from boot time, you can
  provide boot option to configure it. There is a helper function for it:

	setup_fault_attr(attr, str);

- debugfs entries

  failslab, fail_page_alloc, fail_usercopy, and fail_make_request use this way.
  Helper functions:

	fault_create_debugfs_attr(name, parent, attr);

- module parameters

  If the scope of the fault injection capability is limited to a
  single kernel module, it is better to provide module parameters to
  configure the fault attributes.

- add a hook to insert failures

  Upon should_fail() returning true, client code should inject a failure:

	should_fail(attr, size);

Application Examples
--------------------

- Inject slab allocation failures into module init/exit code::

    #!/bin/bash

    FAILTYPE=failslab
    echo Y > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/task-filter
    echo 10 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/probability
    echo 100 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/interval
    echo -1 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/times
    echo 0 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/space
    echo 2 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/verbose
    echo 1 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/ignore-gfp-wait

    faulty_system()
    {
	bash -c "echo 1 > /proc/self/make-it-fail && exec $*"
    }

    if [ $# -eq 0 ]
    then
	echo "Usage: $0 modulename [ modulename ... ]"
	exit 1
    fi

    for m in $*
    do
	echo inserting $m...
	faulty_system modprobe $m

	echo removing $m...
	faulty_system modprobe -r $m
    done

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- Inject page allocation failures only for a specific module::

    #!/bin/bash

    FAILTYPE=fail_page_alloc
    module=$1

    if [ -z $module ]
    then
	echo "Usage: $0 <modulename>"
	exit 1
    fi

    modprobe $module

    if [ ! -d /sys/module/$module/sections ]
    then
	echo Module $module is not loaded
	exit 1
    fi

    cat /sys/module/$module/sections/.text > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/require-start
    cat /sys/module/$module/sections/.data > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/require-end

    echo N > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/task-filter
    echo 10 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/probability
    echo 100 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/interval
    echo -1 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/times
    echo 0 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/space
    echo 2 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/verbose
    echo 1 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/ignore-gfp-wait
    echo 1 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/ignore-gfp-highmem
    echo 10 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/stacktrace-depth

    trap "echo 0 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/probability" SIGINT SIGTERM EXIT

    echo "Injecting errors into the module $module... (interrupt to stop)"
    sleep 1000000

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- Inject open_ctree error while btrfs mount::

    #!/bin/bash

    rm -f testfile.img
    dd if=/dev/zero of=testfile.img bs=1M seek=1000 count=1
    DEVICE=$(losetup --show -f testfile.img)
    mkfs.btrfs -f $DEVICE
    mkdir -p tmpmnt

    FAILTYPE=fail_function
    FAILFUNC=open_ctree
    echo $FAILFUNC > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/inject
    echo -12 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/$FAILFUNC/retval
    echo N > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/task-filter
    echo 100 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/probability
    echo 0 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/interval
    echo -1 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/times
    echo 0 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/space
    echo 1 > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/verbose

    mount -t btrfs $DEVICE tmpmnt
    if [ $? -ne 0 ]
    then
	echo "SUCCESS!"
    else
	echo "FAILED!"
	umount tmpmnt
    fi

    echo > /sys/kernel/debug/$FAILTYPE/inject

    rmdir tmpmnt
    losetup -d $DEVICE
    rm testfile.img


Tool to run command with failslab or fail_page_alloc
----------------------------------------------------
In order to make it easier to accomplish the tasks mentioned above, we can use
tools/testing/fault-injection/failcmd.sh.  Please run a command
"./tools/testing/fault-injection/failcmd.sh --help" for more information and
see the following examples.

Examples:

Run a command "make -C tools/testing/selftests/ run_tests" with injecting slab
allocation failure::

	# ./tools/testing/fault-injection/failcmd.sh \
		-- make -C tools/testing/selftests/ run_tests

Same as above except to specify 100 times failures at most instead of one time
at most by default::

	# ./tools/testing/fault-injection/failcmd.sh --times=100 \
		-- make -C tools/testing/selftests/ run_tests

Same as above except to inject page allocation failure instead of slab
allocation failure::

	# env FAILCMD_TYPE=fail_page_alloc \
		./tools/testing/fault-injection/failcmd.sh --times=100 \
		-- make -C tools/testing/selftests/ run_tests

Systematic faults using fail-nth
---------------------------------

The following code systematically faults 0-th, 1-st, 2-nd and so on
capabilities in the socketpair() system call::

  #include <sys/types.h>
  #include <sys/stat.h>
  #include <sys/socket.h>
  #include <sys/syscall.h>
  #include <fcntl.h>
  #include <unistd.h>
  #include <string.h>
  #include <stdlib.h>
  #include <stdio.h>
  #include <errno.h>

  int main()
  {
	int i, err, res, fail_nth, fds[2];
	char buf[128];

	system("echo N > /sys/kernel/debug/failslab/ignore-gfp-wait");
	sprintf(buf, "/proc/self/task/%ld/fail-nth", syscall(SYS_gettid));
	fail_nth = open(buf, O_RDWR);
	for (i = 1;; i++) {
		sprintf(buf, "%d", i);
		write(fail_nth, buf, strlen(buf));
		res = socketpair(AF_LOCAL, SOCK_STREAM, 0, fds);
		err = errno;
		pread(fail_nth, buf, sizeof(buf), 0);
		if (res == 0) {
			close(fds[0]);
			close(fds[1]);
		}
		printf("%d-th fault %c: res=%d/%d\n", i, atoi(buf) ? 'N' : 'Y',
			res, err);
		if (atoi(buf))
			break;
	}
	return 0;
  }

An example output::

	1-th fault Y: res=-1/23
	2-th fault Y: res=-1/23
	3-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	4-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	5-th fault Y: res=-1/23
	6-th fault Y: res=-1/23
	7-th fault Y: res=-1/23
	8-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	9-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	10-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	11-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	12-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	13-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	14-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	15-th fault Y: res=-1/12
	16-th fault N: res=0/12