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This mini guide is how I set up a simple virtual site on my Fedora Core linux. I enable user web directories and then configure a virtual site using that location. You can create OTHER locations and create OTHER virtual sites if you prefer.
This guide assumes you have Apache installed and working (on Fedora Core have the httpd RPM installed). You also need root access to your machine.
You can select ANY name you want for your virtual site, even sites existing on the internet (microsoft.com). By modifying the local list of hosts and IP address, Linux will re-route all requests for your virtual site to the local Apache server.
I am using the local user directory site in Apache for the virtual site location (this requires NO root access). I am using the ~/public_html convention commonly used in Unix. The minimum I would recommend is the public_html directory and the cgi-bin directory. (You can change this as you see fit). Keep in mind that each directory needs to have some global permissions for the server to access them.
[mirandam@charon ~]$ cd /home/ [mirandam@charon home]$ chmod 711 ~ [mirandam@charon home]$ cd ~ [mirandam@charon ~]$ mkdir public_html [mirandam@charon ~]$ chmod 755 public_html [mirandam@charon ~]$ cd public_html [mirandam@charon public_html]$ mkdir cgi-bin [mirandam@charon public_html]$ chmod 701 cgi-bin
Each and every virtual site should have their own unique configured directory structure.
You can use other locations if you choose. Common places maybe /usr/local/, /opt/, and /var/www/. Examples:
As root, edit httpd.conf. In Fedora Core this is located at: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf. It is a good idea to make a backup copy first. After all changes to the configuration file please make sure to restart Apache.
To enable user directory edit httpd.conf near line ~333 and change the following from:
<IfModule mod_userdir.c> UserDir disable # UserDir public_html </IfModule>
<IfModule mod_userdir.c> # UserDir disable UserDir public_html </IfModule>
If you want to restrict who has a user website, then use the UserDir parameter with the list of usernames:
UserDir enable username
Enable virtual sites on the local machine by uncommenting line ~953:
# Use name-based virtual hosting. # NameVirtualHost *:80
Add each virtual site at the end of the file. The following example is how I mirror my personal website on Fedora Core. The final address (for me) will be http://mjmwired.charon.
<VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin mirandam@googles_email_service DocumentRoot /home/mirandam/public_html/ ServerName mjmwired.charon ServerAlias mjwmired.charon *.mjmwired.charon ErrorLog logs/mjmwired-error_log CustomLog logs/mjmwired-access_log common ErrorDocument 403 /403.html ErrorDocument 404 /404.html ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/home/mirandam/public_html/cgi-bin/" <Directory "/home/mirandam/public_html/cgi-bin/"> AllowOverride None Options None Order allow,deny Allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>
For setting unique parameters for each site (things like SSI, redirect, etc.) you can place between its <VirtualHost> tags. For example, I put my 403 and 404 documents to files I created.
Note: Your directory locations must match the directory structure you created above.
After making these changes, save the configuration file and restart Apache. On Fedora it will be done like:
[root@charon ~]# /etc/init.d/httpd restart Stopping httpd: [ OK ] Starting httpd: [ OK ]
Since every virtual site will be hosted on the local machine, you must let your machine know how to resolve the ip address for each virtual site.
Edit /etc/hosts (as root) to add an entry for every virtual site you add. Every site will point to the localhost address which will always be 127.0.0.1. Example from my machine:
Make sure to match what you have in the ServerName parameter.
Now there should be at least 3 sites you can access on your machine: the main site (on localhost), your user site (~username), and your virtual site. Example:
Note: By using this guide and the above configuration your user directory site and virtual site will be the same.
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